Germany, Federal Republic of (in German, Bundesrepublik Deutschland), country in central Europe, bordered on the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea; on the east by Poland and the Czech Republic; on the south by Austria and Switzerland; and on the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. For much of German history, Germany was a geographical term for an area occupied by many states. A unified nation for 74 years (1871-1945), it was divided after World War II into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; commonly known as West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR; commonly known as East Germany). On October 3, 1990, East Germany, or the GDR, became part of the FRG, and Germany once again became a unified nation. It has an area of 356,970 sq km (137,827 sq mi). Berlin is Germany’s capital and largest city.

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